BEES’ HEALTH AND APITHERAPY

The origins of human communication with the honey bee go back to antiquity. According to the extant rock paintings, some methods of bee colonies management were possessed by human no later than 7 thousand years ago. However, the bee did not become domestic as it applies to domestic animals and birds. [1]

Domesticated animals and birds are not able to stand on their own in the wild nature. They need stall, feeding, and care. The products obtained from them, with few exceptions, cannot be further processed (physical, thermal, chemical).

A vital function of bee family is inextricably linked with the environment. The functions performed by it in nature are multifaceted. Bee is a pollinator of plants. About 90% of the plants cannot exist without pollinator insects, bees are the most common among them. In search of such plants bee is instinctively able to fly over ten kilometers, and people cannot block their flight. The search for feeding in the environment carries a bee itself, and human can only help it in this by seeding as close as possible to the territory of the apiary the honey plants and pollen plants to improve productivity.

Bee is able to exist independently in the environment, searching for suitable housing and creating the necessary climate in it. Human tries to help her in this by designing new forms of hives for the sole purpose - to get maximum of production.

And the most important is that apiculture products are used by a person in an unchanged form.

In the environment, in addition to the macrocosm, there is also a microcosm. The relationship between insects and microorganisms are quite diverse. Visiting the plants, the insects leave on flowers, leaves and fruits their microflora of integument and intestines. At the same time in the process of gathering nectar, plant’s juice, and honeydew secretions their microflora ingests the organism of the insect. In the vital process of the bee family it can be traced that the microflora of honey and pollen flowers along with nectar and pollen are stored in the hive and distributed in the feeding of bees- foragers, and then entered the bodies of all the stages of development of individuals in bee family.

The study of intestinal microflora in different stages of development of honey bee on the one hand, and the study of nectar, pollen, on the other, was held by many scientists. The coincidence of the qualitative microflora composition of plants’ habitats, which were visited by bees and bees’ internal organs of digestion, suggests that the microorganisms together with nectar and pollen with the help of forager bees enter the hive and accumulate in the feed stocks, as well as among different age groups. The majority of micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi) are saprophyte. However, some of them are pathogenic and cause bees diseases that are harmful for families in the form of destruction of the brood, and as a result, the weakening of family strength and loss of productivity [2].

Physiological state and viability of adult bees depends on the conditions in which they develop. The adverse factors contribute to reducing the duration of bees’ life, the reduction of their exoskeleton size, weight and organs. Infection of families by various parasites and microorganisms also affects on the viability and physiological condition of the bees, which develops in them. Their life reduces. It also affects on the body weight reduction of bees. Probability of underdevelopment of various organs increases in several times [3].

Diseases of bees according to the etiology (cause of the diseases) divided into two groups: non-contagious and contagious. Non-contagious diseases occur without the pathogen and are not transmitted from sick to healthy families. Causes of them may be different breaches of keeping, breeding and feeding.

The most often non- contagious diseases of bees occur under the influence of violation in feeding conditions. Such as feeding toxicosis: chemical, honeydew, nectar (pollen), salt. The lack of feeding leads to bees’ dystrophy. The lack of pollen leads to the protein dystrophy, the lack of honey – to the carbohydrate dystrophy.

Violation of conditions is expressed by cooling, or overheating of bee nests. During cooling appears "cool brood", during overheating - "steaming" bees. Violation of breeding conditions appears in case of inbreeding bees and the absence of selection for disease-resistant bees, hardy and productive bee colonies. The result is non-viable bees.

Insect protection against germs is a multifaceted process involving the activation of several enzymes, hemocyte response and rapid synthesis of antimicrobial peptides [1]. Bees’ resistance to diseases depends on the presence of the required amount of protein, especially high-grade in the body of insects. Bees’ hemolymp contains up to 8% of proteins and about 5.5% of amino acids which play an important role in the development of bees at all stages. Bees’ providing of protein substances is especially important in the period of their development - in the spring (March-May) and in the late season (August-October). The intensity of protein metabolism in the family is not the same during the life course of bees. The appearance of the brood in the nest entails a marked reduction of protein fractions according to the study, which is the result of increased protein metabolism, and therefore a new rhythm of life [4].

In nature, a major source of protein for bees is pollen, which biological value is determined not only by the general quantity, but also, to a greater extent, by the content of essential amino acids and trace elements that are important for the life of bees. However, as a result of human activities the composition of faunal entomophilous cultures (diversity) in the habitable zone of bees is much limited and oneflower pollen not always contains the whole complex of amino acids, which is necessary for the body of the bees [2, 5].

Contagious diseases are the result of ingestion of the pathogen in the bees’ organism and they are transmitted from sick to healthy families. Depending on the type of pathogen they are divided into: infectious and parasitic. The causative agents of infectious diseases are bacterial diseases (foulbroods, powdered brood, septicemia, salmonellosis, gafniosis, colibacteriosis), fungal infections (ascosphaerose, aspergillosis, melasma, candidiasis), disease caused by viruses (sacculated brood, hot, slow, chronic viral paralysis filamen-tovirosis, disease of wing deformation). The causative agents of parasitic diseases are arachnoses (akarapiosis, varroosis, tropil-lelapsosis), helminthiasis (nematodes), enthomosis (meleois, brauliosis) protoosis (amoebiasis, nozemosis).

It should be noted, that in the recent years on the background of widespread parasitism of mite Varroa families of bees become weaker and more depleted. In such circumstances, the bees are affected by infectious diseases much more frequently. These diseases occur in so-called mixed form. One hive can contain all foulbrood pathogens as well as other diseases. The form of disease manifestation has recently changed from explicit, with visible clinical signs, into a latent, asymptomatic. Typical clinical signs are absent, and it seems that the family is healthy. This situation in the veterinary aspect is more dangerous - the invisible infection of other families happens.

Nature gave people an invaluable wealth - bee products. They have a wide application in mechanical engineering, aircraft construction, rocketry, electronics, the manufacture of precision optical instruments, musical instruments, paintings, as well as cosmetics, perfumes, food and medicine, and so on.

The beneficial properties of bee products have been known since ancient times. Especially popular among them people use honey, wax, pollen, cerago, propolis, royal jelly, bee venom. These products are involved in metabolic processes, provide the energy for the living body, enhance the immunologic processes that have a positive impact on the course of many diseases, significantly improve metabolism for children and the elderly people, reduced tissue trophism. [5].

However, only the most prosperous in the veterinary and sanitary products is capable to ensure that action. Therefore, it is particularly important:
Creation of the favorable conditions of keeping, feeding and breeding of bee colonies in order to obtain the most high-grade bee products in the quantitative and qualitative aspects.
Timely and fully providing of diagnosis of laboratory and production activities to identify and prevent the spread of the bees’ diseases pathogens.
Implementation of preventive and, if necessary, internal, current and final disinfection measures in order to destroy pathogens of all kinds of diseases in the environment and in the hive.

Literature

Kakpakov V. T. Some actual problems of honey bee genetics /

V.T. Kakpakov // Beekeeping in cold and temperate climate: Proceedings of the 20th International, 4th All-Russian Conference. Pskov (Russia) March 17-18, 2007 / Pskov Agricultural Research Institute, FSEIHPE "Russian State Agrarian Correspondence University." M., 2007. - P. 34-38

Masliy I.G. Varroa mite and infectious diseases of honey bees / I.G. Masliy

S. N. Nemtsov, O.V. Sviridov // Vet. Medicine: interagency. Thematc. scientific. - H., 2005 - Issue 84, T. II. -FROM. 753-756.

Yeskova M.D. Ascosphaerose and development of bees / M.D. Yeskova // Beekeeping in cold and temperate climate: Proceedings of the 20th International, 4-th All-Russian Conference. Pskov Russia) 17 - 18 March, 2007 / Pskov Agricultural Research Institute, FSEIHPE "Russian State Agrarian Correspondence University." M., 2007. - P. 12...


№ 1.2013EN || Автор: Masliy Irina, Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, Head deputy of Laboratory of bee diseases, Nemkova Svetlana, Candidate of Biological Sciences, National Research Center

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